Chii chinonzi Speed ​​Kukwira?

Yekumhanyisa kukwira kwakadzokera kumavambo ekukwikwidza kukwira muma1940 Soviet Soviet apo nguva yaakatora kupedzisa migwagwa mirefu uye yakaoma yaive kiyi yekukora metric. Kukwikwidza musoro-ku-musoro yaive tsika yakajairika pakati pevakwiri veSoviet uye vakaunzwa pasirese muna 1976 nemakwikwi ekutanga ekukwira epasi rese akaitirwa muguta reRussia re Gagra.

Kukwira kwechimanjemanje kwemazuva ano ihondo padivi-ne-padivi yenguva yekumhanya pamadziro emamita gumi nemashanu. Rakafa rakapfava uye rakafukidza madhigirii mashanu, iyo yekumhanyisa madziro ndeye chinangwa-chakavakirwa yakatwasuka track ine mbiri dzakafanana nzira dzisingambo shanduke. Kusiyana nedombo uye kutungamira uko vanokwira vanofanirwa kukurumidza kuongorora uye kugadzirisa kumatambudziko nemigwagwa yakatarwa zvakaringana kutenderera kwega kwega, vanomhanyisa kukwira vanogona kupedza makore vachiziva ndangariro dzemhasuru uye kuraira kunogona kuveura zvikamu zvechipiri kubva panguva yavo. Vamhanyi vanomhanya kwazvo pasi rese vanokwira gumi nemashanu metres pakati pe6.99 uye 5.48 masekondi. Kumhanyisa kukwira kuputika kwakasimba kwesimba remitambo iro kune vasina kudzidza, rinomira kuti rakaoma sei chaizvo. Nguva yekumhanyisa yakanyorwa kusvika ku0.01 masekondi uchishandisa yekumanikidza ndiro tsoka dzinokonzeresa kutanga iyo wachi uye magetsi maseru kuti amire. Mukuranga uku, nekukurumidza kukunda kwepamusoro uye kamwe chete kwekunyepa kunotanga kugogodza uyo anokwira kubva mujaho. Muna 2016, IFSC yakapihwa Perfect Descent rezinesi rakasarudzika rekupa auto belays yezvepasi rekodhi kumhanya zviitiko uye yavo yakasarudzika yanyard lanyard yave inozivikanwa kuzivikanwe kumakwikwi uye makwikwi kutenderera pasirese.

Yekumhanyisa Kukwira pa2016 IFSC Kukwira Kwenyika Makwikwi

Nyika Yemitambo Kukwira Makwikwi

Iyo yazvino nguva yemitambo kukwira yakazvarwa muna 1985 apo vepamusoro vanokwira vakaungana padombo rechisikirwo muValle Stretta padhuze neBardonechia, Italy ye SportRoccia. Zviuru zvevaoni zvakafadza avo vaikwira vakatevera nzira dzakatarwa kuburikidza nenzvimbo yepanyama. Zvinetso uye kukanganisa kwekumhanyisa makwikwi padombo rechisikigo kwakasundira chiitiko ichi kumadziro ekugadzira nekunopera kwema1980 apo SportRoccia yakava nhanho paiyo ichangoumbwa Kukwira World Cup.

Yekutanga World Championship yakarongedzwa muna 1991 uye gore rakatevera munda muhombe wevakwikwidzi wakazobudira iyo yekutanga Youth World Championship muBasel, Switzerland muchiratidzo chakajeka chekukura kwemukurumbira kwemutambo. Pakupera kwema1990, dombo rakaunzwa zviri pamutemo uye pamwe nehutungamiriri uye nekumhanyisa kuranga zvakakonzera kugadzirwa kweWorld Cup.

Kukwira kwemitambo kwakaramba kuchikura mukati ma2000's nezvakakosha zvinosanganisira kuiswa muWorld Games uye Indoor Asia Mitambo, kuunzwa kweMakwikwi eParaclimbing makwikwi, uye kuvambwa kweInternational Federation of Sport Kukwira (IFSC). Pakazosvika 2013, kukwira kwemitambo kwaive paInternational Olimpiki Committee (IOC) pfupi pfupi pamitambo yeOlympic ye2020 ichiunza nhanho nyowani yekuratidzwa kwepasirese uye rutsigiro rwepasi rese. Mukati memakore maviri emitambo yekukwira kwekuratidzira kutanga paMitambo yeYouth Olimpiki ya2014, IOC yakasimbisa zviri pamutemo kuiswa kwayo mumitambo yeOlympic yeTokyo ya2020 (yava kuitika muna 2021).

Kukwidza madziro kunogona kuwanikwa mune dzinopfuura nyika zana nemakumi mana uye kufarirwa kwekukwira magyms uye saizi uye chiyero chiri kukura nekukurumidza. Inofungidzira kuisa pasi rose kutora chikamu mukukwira mitambo kutenderera mamirioni makumi matatu nemashanu uye zvikwata zvekukwira (huswa-midzi nzvimbo yekudyara yeVamiriri Vepasirose vepasi rose uye vane tariro yeOlympic) inogona kuwanikwa munzvimbo zhinji dzekurovedza muviri. Mune iyo nguva kubvira yekutanga SportRoccia, kukwira kwave kuita kwazvino uye kwenyanzvi yemitambo nhabvu inopemberera tsika yeAlpine uye nharaunda ine vateereri vepasirese.

Kugovera kweMutungamiri, Yekumhanyisa, uye Bouldering

Mitambo yekukwira makwikwi yakarongedzwa kutenderedza mabwe, lead, uye nekukurumidza kuraira. Mukukwikwidza, vanokwira vane nguva yakatarwa yekutora zvibodzwa zvavo nemaviri chete anobata zvibodzwa mumakwikwi aya. Iwo zvibodzwa zvinozadzikiswa kana uyo anokwira achiratidza kutonga pamusoro penzvimbo yepamusoro uye, kana mucherechedzo unobata wepakati-nzira wakasarudzika sebhonasi inobata. Vakuru vanosimbisa kuti kutonga kunoitika kana uyo anokwira achibata kumusoro kana bhonasi bata nemaoko maviri kwemasekonzi matatu. Huwandu hwekuyedza kusvika pakudzora ndewekuwedzera kusiyanisa kuita kuti uyo anokwira aine huwandu hwakawanda hwezvidzoro zvinodzorwa munhamba shoma yekuyedza anokunda. Bonus mamaki anongoshandiswa chete se epamusoro mamaki tie-mabhureki. Kufanirwa kutenderera kunowanzo kuve nematambudziko mashanu ematombo ane mana chete ekukunda muma semi-fainari uye ekupedzisira maround. Nepo chinangwa chekuwana kutonga kweyakagadzika chiri icho chinangwa mune ese ari maviri matombo uye anotungamira maitiro, anotungamira anokwira ane nzira refu uye yakaoma yekukunda, kana vachikwanisa kugara pamadziro.

Kukwira kwekutungamira chiitiko chekutsungirira uko vanokwira vanokanda tambo inoteedzera mune yekukurumidza dhizaini yekudzivirira pavanokwira. Pane mukana mumwe chete mukutungamira kwekukwira nemapoinzi epamusoro akapihwa mukwikwidzi uyo anotonga kumusoro kubata. Vanokwira havana kusarudzika muzvikwanisiro uye vanobvumidzwa kutarisa vamwe vakwikwidzi vasati vaedza ivo. Semi-fainari uye yekupedzisira maround anofanirwa kuve ari kuona uye vatambi vanopihwa maminetsi matanhatu ekucherechedza nguva yekucherechedza nzira vasati vapinda vega. Mumwe-ne-mumwe, vakwikwidzi vanonzi mafomu ekuzviparadzanisa nekuda kwekuyedza kwavo kuchinjika kweakarongeka marongedzero apfuura. Iyo migwagwa inguva-yakatemwa pakati pemaminetsi matanhatu kusvika masere uye inowanzo kuratidza kuomarara kwenzira. Zvisungo zvakaputswa neiyo yekuverengera maitiro uko pamberi mhedzisiro yakaverengwa. Kana makwikwi ekutungamira ari marathon, kumhanyisa ndiyo 100m dash.

Iwo wega musoro-kune-musoro kuranga, kumhanya ihondo-ne-parutivi hondo yenguva inokurumidza pamadziro gumi nemashanu emamita. Rakafa rakapfava uye rakafukidza madhigirii mashanu, iyo yekumhanyisa madziro ndeye chinangwa-chakavakirwa yakatwasuka track ine mbiri dzakafanana nzira dzisingambo shanduke. Kusiyana nedombo uye kutungamira uko vanokwira vanofanirwa kukurumidza kuongorora uye kugadzirisa kune zvakatarwa matambudziko nemigwagwa, vanokwira nekukurumidza vanogona kupedza makore vachiziva ndangariro dzemhasuru uye kuraira kunogona kuveura zvikamu zvechipiri kubva panguva yavo. Vamhanyi vanomhanya kwazvo pasi rese vanokwira gumi nemashanu metres pakati pe6.99 uye 5.48 masekondi. Kumhanyisa kukwira kuputika kwakasimba kwesimba remitambo rinomira kune vasina kudzidza, zvakaoma sei chaizvo. Nguva dzekumhanyisa dzakanyorwa kusvika ku0.01 sekondi uchishandisa yekumanikidza ndiro tsoka dzinokonzeresa kuti utange wachi uye maseru maseru kuti amire. Mukuranga uku, iyo inomhanyisa kune yepamusoro kukunda. Muna 2016, IFSC yakapa Perfect Descent rezinesi rakasarudzika rekupa auto belays yezvepasi rese zviitiko zvekumhanya uye yavo yakasarudzika yeyellow lanyard yave inozivikanwa pakuona kune majimu nemakwikwi kutenderera pasirese.   

Kukwira Inova yeOlympic Sport

Kukwira kwemitambo kuri kuramba kuchichinja uye kurota kwekukwira mukwikwidzi weOlympic kuchiswedera padhuze kune chaiko kune vamwe, kune kusahadzika kunouya kubva kumatunhu enharaunda yekukwira nezve kukurumidza kumhanya kweshanduko uye kuwedzera kuri kutarisa pamutambo. Pane zvitsitsinho zvekuzivisa kuti kukwira kwemitambo kwaizosanganisirwa mumitambo yeOlympic yeTokyo ya2020, kunetsekana kwakasimudzwa pamusoro pemafomati echikwata akabatanidzwa akatenderanwa pakati peIOC ne IFSC. Kusiyana nedunhu reNdebe yeNyika uko vatambi vakasununguka kusarudza kosi imwe kana dzakawanda kuti vakwikwidze, vanokwira maOlympic vanozotariswa uye menduru dzichapihwa zvichibva pachikamu cheuwandu kubva mukukwikwidza mune ese matatu maitiro. Izvi zvinogara zvichichinja nhandare yevatambi vanga vari pamusoro pechikadi padunhu reYouth neWorld Cup mumakore apfuura. Pasina mubvunzo, kukwira mumaOlimpiki kuchachinja zvachose mutambo uyu nekusuduruka kubva padombo chairo kuenda kumadziro ekuvaka mumakore ekutanga eSportRoccia akatamisa kukwikwidza munzira isingatombo fungidzirwa makore makumi mana apfuura.

Inokurumidza, yepamusoro, yakasimba, ndiyo motto yemitambo yeOlympic uye chiono icho kukwikwidza kwemitambo kukwidza kwakasimba kudaro kuchizadzisa. Mukupedzisira, kufara kwekukwira kweOlympic kutanga kunogona kunge kuri kupenya mupani sezvo pasina vimbiso yekuti ichave iri kunze kwemitambo mushure megore ra2020. Izvo zvichave kune vanhu vazhinji uye kana vakawana kukwikwidza mumitambo uye kukwikwidza kunoitwa nemitambo kukwira uye kubatana neyakafuma nhoroondo yezvinhu zvealpine zvinomiririra.